Definitions & Statistics

There are many different terms that are used to define gender based or power based violence. Below is a list of some of the most common terms used: 
 
Interpersonal Violence​ is a term used to identify abuse that is directed at a speficic person from a specific person(s).  this includes, but is not limited to sexual vioelnce, domestic violence and stalking. Interpersonal violence invovles an imbalance of power, one person maintaining or attempting to maintain control of the other person and feeling entitled to behave the way they do. 
For information about Camden-specific statistics, you can review our Campus Climate Action Plan. 
 
Sexual Violence is an “umbrella term” used to broadly define a variety of behaviors that are unwelcome, unwanted, non-consensual, forceful or coercive and sexual in act.  The common elements of each of these types of behaviors are that the perpetrator(s) have a sense of entitlement and exert power and control over the victim(s).
 
There are a range of behaviors that some Professionals in the field place on a continuum, however this might give the impression that the violence begins at one level and progressively “gets worse”.  It is important to think about sexual violence as a broad range of behaviors that have many similar components and have many similar effects on survivors and society at large. 
Sexual violence can include: sexual assault, rape, criminal sexual contact, lewdness, sexual harassment, incest, child sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, pornography and prostitution.
 
Sexual Assault/Rape: Sexual assault, often referred to as rape, is legally defined differently in each state and by the federal government. In New Jersey, the law defines sexual assault as "the penetration, no matter how slight, in which physical force or coercion is used or in which the victim is physically or mentally incapacitated". Penetration is defined as "vaginal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or anal intercourse between persons or the insertion of a hand, finger or other object into the anus or vagina by either the actor or upon the actor's instruction" (NJSA 2C:14-1).
 
Research indicates that approximately 1 in 5 women and 1 in 33 men will be victims of sexual assault in their lifetime (Fisher, Cullen, & Turner 2000)
1 in 4 to 1 in 5 of all women will experience an attempted or completed rape during their 4-5 years college career. [3]
           Sexual Assault is the second most common violent crime committed on college campuses. [2]
16% of sexual assaults are reported to the Police. On college campuses, studies indicate this number is as low as 5%. One study indicates that 42% of those victims on college campuses told no one. [3]
 
Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault refers to a sexual assault in which  drugs were used to incapacitate a victim so that the perpetrator could commit a sexual assault or rape. Alcohol is the most common club drugs used both with and without the knowledge of the victim for the purpose of committing rape.
 
Sexual Harassment is any unwelcome or unwanted sexual conduct in which a person feels their individual work or academic performance has been reasonably impacted OR the conduct has created an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment.   The behaviors vary and can include sexual contact, offensive comments, jokes or other factors that impact a person’s ability to do their job.(NJCASA)
 
Domestic Violence:  Domestic Violence is a pattern of controlling or coercive behavior by one individual in order to maintain power and control over another in an intimate relationship.  It includes many behaviors such as physical, emotional, sexual and economic abuse.  Domestic Violence also includes the use of intimidation, threats and isolating behaviors. Examples of abusive behaviors can be found here.
 
It is important to note that NJ law does not strictly define “dating relationship”, meaning that there is no set time limit for how long a couple must have been dating in order for the victim to seek relief under the law.  
 
In New Jersey in 2001, one act of domestic violence occurred every six minutes and 23 seconds. (New Jersey State Police Crime Reporting Unit, 2001. Domestic Violence Offense Report. Trenton, NJ: NJ State Police, 196.)
Nearly 1 in 3 adult women experience at least one physical assault by a partner during adulthood. (American Psychological Association, 1986. Violence and the Family: Report of the American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Violence and Family, 10.)
Women ages 19-29 reported more violence by intimates than any other age group. (Bachman, R. & Saltzman, L.E., 1995. Violence Against Women: Estimates from the Redesigned Survey. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, NCJ-154348.)
An average of 28% of high school and college students experience dating violence at some point. (Brustin, S., 1995. Legal Response to Teen Dating Violence. Family Law Quarterly, 29, 2, 331.)
 
Consent is when someone clearly and voluntarily agrees, gives permission, or says "yes" to sexual activity. Consent is always freely given and all people in a sexual situation must feel that they are able to say "yes" or "no" or stop the sexual activity at any point. Consent cannot be given by someone who is incapacitated which may include people who are intoxicated. To read more about how consent is defined by Rutgers University, you may click here.
 
Child Sexual Assault/Abuse refers to sexual contact &/or sexual activity between a minor and an adult, or between two minors when one exerts power over the other. Child sexual abuse does not need to include physical contact between a perpetrator and a child. Exposing oneself to a minor, fondling, masturbation in the presence of a minor, and owning and sharing pornogaphic content of children, and other behaviors are forms of child sexual abuse.  
 
 
Stalking:  Stalking is a course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to feel fear.  The most common forms of stalking include:  repeated public approaching, unwanted phone calls, following the victim, physical intimidation or assault or cyber stalking.  Most stalkers use more than one behavior.  (The Stalking Resource Center)
 
Revenge Porn is a slang term used to describe revealing or sexually explicit images or videos of a person posted on the internet, typically by a former sexual partner, without the consent of the subject and in order to cause them distress or embarrassment.  It is illegal in 38 states, including New Jersey.               
 
“Survivor” vs. “Victim” When a crime has been committed against a person, the common and legal term for their status is “victim”. Professionals in the violence prevention field often use “survivor” to refer to someone who has gone through the recovery process, or when discussing the short- or long-term effects of sexual violence. VPVA uses the term “victim” interchangeably with the term “survivor, and honors the preference of each individual person.
 
Trafficking involves the recruitment and transportation of persons, using deception, coercion and threats in order to place and keep them in a situation of forced labor, slavery or servitude. Persons are trafficked into a variety of sectors of the informal economy, including prostitution, domestic work, agriculture, the garment industry or street begging.  (United Nations Development Fund for Women)
 
For more specific information and resources regarding sexual violence in the LGBTQIA+ community, click the embedded link. 
 
 
[1] (Black, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Walters, M.L., Merrick, M.T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M.R. (2011) The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.) National Institute of Justice & Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Prevalence, Incidence and Consequences of Violence Against Women Survey. 1998.)
[2] Fisher, Bonnie et al; Final Report: Understanding Crime Victimization Among College students: Implications for Crime Prevention; US DOJ, OJP
[3] (Koss, 1987 & CALCASA 2003)